Migration with Y-DNA
- Last update 12/26/2012
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TIME LINE: HUMAN MIGRATION -- Rechecked 11/21/2012
The Genographic Project is creating a picture of when and where ancient humans moved around the world by mapping the genetic
markers in modern peoples. These great migrations eventually led the descendants of a small group of Africans to occupy even the farthest
reaches of the earth. I discovered that this project only uses
the first 12 markers of the genealogical genetic coding.
Therefore these data are not as detailed as, for instance, the data at
FTDNA. I have even written them about the disparity in one of my
markers between FTDNA and Geo - their response was that different uses
sometimes produces different results - not very satisfying.
Still, give or take a few thousand years this time line should be
About 25,000 yrs ago the Q lines from FTDNA migration
maps go to North central Eurasia then split and turn back to Northwest Europe toward
Scandinavia, while the rest of Q continued on into the Americas. Over 90%
of Amerindians are of this linage (Amerindian seems to be the new word
describing the original tribes of the Americas).
This text is extracted from the very good book "The Journey of Man a
genetic odyssey" by Spencer Wells, Princeton University Press, First
Edition. Also from Family Tree Maker, and National Geographic's Genomproject.
The book does not go into detail of how to interpret or date individual
Y-chromosome or mtDNA. Although mtDNA leads us farther back in time it
does not lend itself to population tracing as does the Y-chromosome.
The book details what anthropologist now believe to be the path of mankind from the last point of near extinction of homo sapiens some 80,000 years ago. This book does not go into detail of how to interpret or date individual Y-chromosome or mtDNA.
Posted 2008.06.22: Lake Toba is the site of one of the greatest volcanic eruption so far documented in earths history. Located in present day Sumatra this eruption which occurred about 80,000-72,000 years ago is thought to have brought mankind to the brink of extinction. Recent theory believes about 30,000 people lived thru the Toba explosion and it's devastating aftermath. However, only about 5,000 were female of breeding age.
Posted 11/11/2008: There is a caldera in Yellowstone National Park that blows about every 600,000 years and it's overdue. If it explodes it will be as devastating as was Toba. Cockroaches and alligators saw the dinosaur go extinct so they will survive. I expect the Inuit and many living in Siberia and Canada to survive also unless they forget how their grandfathers hunted. So humans will probably be around even after most of us are killed off in the next big bang. I expect city folks to go first, then suburban, then country folks. Has anyone tried to grow food crops in asphalt or concrete?
Map of Lake Toba.
Special feature: Lake Toba in "virtual photographs" panoramic displays of Lake Toba.
Credits: Prof. Dr. William Bowen, California Geographical Survey, 10907 Rathburn Avenue, Northridge, CA 91326, USA .panoramic displays of Lake Toba.
19th February 2005
Fig. 2-2. Graphic of Lake Toba. The eruption of 73,000 years ago left the Sibandung caldera. Lake Toba is surrounded by two small, active volcanos as well as several updomed areas and hot springs. These features indicate that there is activity below the surface today and that pressure is rising. Samosir island, too, is evidence for upthrust from below. From the record it seems that Toba produces major eruptions every 300-400,000 years and that it will erupt again - but not any time soon.
Volcanic features in and around Lake Toba today: gray area Present-day topographic depression
green area Updomed areas: 1 Sibandung caldera: made 73,000 years ago by the Toba YTT event (Young Toba Ash) 2 Haranggaol caldera: made 500,000 years ago by the Toba MTT event (Middle Toba Ash)
3 Sibandung caldera: made 800,000 years ago by the Toba OTT event (Old Toba Ash)
The MTT and OTT events were not as large as the YTT event of 73,000 years ago but were still major eruptions of at least VEI 7.
(Sipisopiso) - young dacit-andesite volcano.
V2 Pusubukit volcano - young dacit-andesite volcano.
D1 Pardepur dacite domes.
D2 Tuk-tuk rhyolite dome.
| Supervolcano Rained Acid on Both Poles—But Wasn't
So Bad After All?
Published November 7, 2012 James Owen for National Geographic News
It was the largest volcanic eruption of the last two million years—an estimated 5,000 times larger than Mount St. Helens's 1980 blast, with enough lava to create two Mount Everests. Toba was Mount St. Helens times 5,000, but new evidence softens the fallout..
Roughly 74,000 years ago, Indonesia's Toba supervolcano pumped massive amounts of sun-shrouding ash and gases into the atmosphere, cooling the planet, possibly devastating early humanity, and—a new study reveals—raining sulfuric acid on both poles. Scientists have long debated just how extensive and enduring those effects were. One study, for example suggested the Toba blast spawned a thousand-year ice age that only some 10,000 individuals survived.
Another has found evidence of humans thriving in relatively nearby India shortly after the eruption. The new study—based on acid rain-tainted ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland—suggests Toba's fallout wasn't quite as catastrophic as might be expected. The Antarctic ice core, for example, even bears traces of a warming event just after the Toba eruption—contrary to a strong cooling signal seen in the Greenland cores. "That means there's no long-term global cooling caused by the eruption," study co-author Anders Svensson said. If there had been, you'd expect to see evidence of a chill at both Poles. In fact, the post-Toba Antarctic cooling spike looks well, relatively ordinary. "There may have been shorter [global] cooling of a duration of maybe 10 or 20 years, like we see for more recent"—and much less powerful—"volcanoes," said Svensson, of the Niels Bohr Institute's Centre for Ice and Climate in Copenhagen.
Toba's Human Toll
Toba was "certainly not causing long-term cooling of a thousand years, or even a hundred," Svensson said. "It seems like humans lived on and everything is recovering." Of course that would have depended in part on location. It's speculated that prehistoric human populations—some perhaps relatively fresh out of Africa—were ravaged by the volcano's environmental fallout as far away from Indonesia as modern-day India.
That ancient toll may come in to sharper focus as a result of the new ice core data, coupled with ash readings from closer to the long-gone volcano. By correlating the various dating findings, the team says, they'll be able to better estimate when the eruption occurred, which should in turn allow archaeologists to better gauge whether artifacts date from pre- or post-Toba times.
Whenever Toba exploded, it's unlikely we'll see such a mega-eruption any time soon. "It's a very low risk," Svensson reassured.
The new Toba-volcano study was published online by the journal Climate of the Past on Monday [Nov 5th, 2012 ].
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