TOC Ancient Origins  -  6/8/2017
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ata shown is courtesy of FTDNA - much more will be found on web HERE
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Considering that there has been only 2017 years (give or take) since the demise of Julius Caesar something dating 8,000 years being four times that, provides me great wonder.  Our current warming period began about 11,700 years ago – at some point history tells us this warming will flip and another million years long ice age will return.  Millions of species have come and gone on this earth -- Will there be enough pockets of warmth to allow our species to survive the next ice age
Our water may not boil away it is more likely to freeze.


 DNA from Hunter-Gatherers still found in European Population is 45%

The climate during the Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 mill – 11,700 YA) fluctuated between episodes of glaciation (or ice ages) and episodes of warming, during which glaciers would retreat. It is within this epoch that modern humans migrated into the European continent at around 45,000 years ago. These Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) were organized into bands whose subsistence strategy relied on gathering local resources as well as hunting large herd animals as they travelled along their migration routes. Thus these ancient peoples are referred to as Hunter-Gatherers. The timing of the AMH migration into Europe happens to correspond with a warming trend on the European continent, a time when glaciers retreated and large herd animals expanded into newly available grasslands.

Evidence of hunter-gatherer habitation has been found throughout the European continent from Spain at the La Brana cave to Loschbour, Luxembourg and Motala, Sweden. The individuals found at the Loschbour and Motala sites have mitochondrial U5 or U2 haplogroups, which is typical of Hunter-Gatherers in Europe and Y-chromosome haplogroup I. These findings suggest that these maternally and paternally inherited haplogroups, respectively, were present in the population before farming populations gained dominance in the area.

Based on the DNA evidence gathered from these three sites, scientists are able to identify surviving genetic similarities between current day Northern European populations and the first AMH Hunter-Gatherers in Europe. The signal of genetic sharing between present-day populations and early Hunter-Gatherers, however, begins to become fainter as one moves further south in Europe. The hunter-gatherer subsistence strategy dominated the landscape of the European continent for thousands of years until populations that relied on farming and animal husbandry migrated into the area during the middle to late Neolithic Era around 8,000–7,000 years ago.
 


La Brana 1: La Brana, Spain (~7,000 years ago)

Remains of a 7,000 year old Hunter-Gatherer, dubbed La Brana 1, were discovered in a cave in Northern Spain. Through analysis of DNA extracted from a tooth, La Brana 1’s remains have since shed some much needed light on the Mesolithic inhabitants of ancient Europe. DNA analysis has concluded that La Brana 1 carried genes that are associated with disease resistance, thus challenging the existing belief that the emergence of these genes coincided with the arrival of later farming communities. Analysis also suggests that this Hunter-Gatherer is more closely related to modern-day Northern Europeans than to Southern Europeans who have shown greater similarity with Hunter-Gatherer remains from regions in Sweden and Siberia.

Loschbour: Luxemburg (~8,000 years ago)

Remains of an 8,000 year old Hunter-Gatherer were discovered at a burial site located in a rock shelter in Loschbour, Luxembourg. The remains are believed to have belonged to a male between 34 and 47 years old. Similar to the remains found in Motala, Sweden, this Hunter-Gatherer male also belongs to the Y-chromosome haplogroup I and mitochondrial haplogroup U.

Motala:  Motala, Sweden (~8,000 years ago)

Remains of seven individuals were discovered in a European Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherer burial site east of lake Vättern near modern day Motala, Sweden. All of the individuals found belonged to the mitochondrial DNA haplogroups U2 and U5, which was quite common for Hunter-Gatherers of this time period and location. These mitochondrial DNA haplogroups can still be found in modern day populations, although in much lower frequencies. Of these seven individuals, five of them were males belonging to the Y-chromosome haplogroup I, thus providing evidence that even in Mesolithic times this Y-chromosome haplogroup was common in Northern European populations.
 


DNA from ancient Farmer's still found in European Population is 43%
Linear Pottery Cultures: Central Europe (~8,000 years ago)

Roughly 8,000 years ago Farming Cultures, such as the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), migrated from the Mediterranean Near East into the European continent. This migration moved through Greece, quickly spreading into the Balkans and arrived in Central Europe by around 5,700 years ago. Archaeological evidence of early Farming Cultures habitation has been found near rivers and lakes; suggesting that these peoples followed the fertile loess soils, often found along bodies of water, to build their communities. Timber longhouses, constructed from wicker like materials that were walled together with a mud plaster, were built together in loose groups to form the communities of the Farming Cultures. In addition to the unique architecture, researchers also use remains from the distinctive pottery practices to identify LBK communities. LBK pottery is unique in its use of parallel lines to form spiral designs, and designs of triangles and chevrons around bands on earthen bowls.


Ötzi: Swiss / Italian Alps (~5,300 years ago)

The Tyrolean Iceman, better known as Ötzi, was found in the Ötztal Mountains on the border of modern day Austria and Italy. Found with items such as a copper hand axe, dagger, and arrows typical of Copper Age burials, Ötzi is thought to be a member of a 4th millennium BCE Farming culture from, what is currently known as, South Tyrol, Austria.


Stuttgart: Germany ( ~5,000 years ago)

Remains discovered in Stuttgart, Germany were identified as having been from a female, likely between 22–30 years old, who was a member of a Neolithic farming community. Evidence from excavations of this site shows inhabitants from a number of different cultures throughout the ancient past, and it is not specific to only Neolithic farming communities. Artifacts, such as pottery dating to around 5,500–4,800 BCE, and evidence of ritualized burial practices suggest that at least one of the remains and inhabitants was likely from the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture. The LBK culture has been identified as one of the first farming cultures in Europe, and they are known for their distinctive pottery and burial practices.
 


-- Corded Ware Culture
-- Yamnaya Culture
 
Corded Ware: Central Europe (~4,000 years ago)

The Neolithic Early Farming culture of Central Europe was culturally and physically replaced by 2,800 BCE. The new inhabitants of this region, the Yamnaya, brought culture and Early Bronze age technology originating from the Eurasian Steppe.  Later cultures inhabiting Central Europe, most notably the Corded Ware culture of the late Neolithic, could identify an average of 75% ancestry from the Yamnaya culture.  The remaining 25% show ancestry from Early Neolithic Farming Cultures like the Linearbandkeramik.  Changes in subsistence strategy and culture can be identified through DNA analysis, as well as changes in cultural practices such as burial rituals and practices.  Cultural evolution in this area is displayed in the arrival of pit burial practices and agro-pastoral subsistence strategies.

Yamnaya: Eurasian Steppe (~5,800 years ago)metal age invader found

At roughly 3,800 BCE, the people of the Yamnaya culture emerged in the Eurasian Steppe. The Yamnaya relied on a subsistence strategy of pastoralism, and displayed an advanced understanding of metals (primarily copper) and animal domestication. They mined the metals they used to construct daggers, axes, and jewelry; and used domesticated horses to guide the movement of their herds. Large swaths of land are necessary for herds to graze; and as little evidence of Eastern Yamnaya settlements have been found, experts suggest that the Yamnaya peoples were partially nomadic. It is likely the Yamnaya peoples spent much of their time in wagons moving their herds in response to seasonal changes. Archaeological digs on land used for ancient Yamnaya burials have discovered that burials were ritualized, as scientists have unearthed material goods and wheeled carts buried with high ranking individuals. Finally, DNA evidence shows that a common Y-chromosome haplogroup of the Yamnaya pastoralists is R1a and R1b, which is still prevalent in Western Europe today.

 


Non-European 0%

Most of the world is not of European descent and alternatively, have genetic contributions from influential and significant populations for which we currently do not have enough scientific data. For this reason, those whose ancestral makeup is of non-European descent cannot be grouped into these three particular ancient European categories. As more significant DNA evidence is found in other regions of the world, we will work to continue to connect the ancient with the present in our effort to further our understanding of the interconnectedness between us all. To explore your non-European origins, please see your myOrigins results.
 
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