General DNA Research  TOC  -  3/19/2013
Includes Genealogical DNA Facts and News

Ancient Origins: Based on my Y-DNA

-- Hunter Gatherers 45%
-- Farmers 43%
-- Metal age invaders 12%
-- Non European 0%

Courtesy of Family Tree DNA   If you are not a member you may join from this page.

Cocktail Test  //  These test are conversation items only - No real value has been assigned to any of these type test:

Test I have taken:
1. Longevity Test Result
2. Warrior Gene
3. The Black Death Plague Mutation

General DNA News TOC  //  Pa·le·o·an·thro·pol·o·gy [ pàylee ō anthrə pólləjee ]   The study of early humans and related species through fossil evidence.
Genographic Project - WEB  They are installing a version 2.0.  When I try to sign in they pop up a Googlechrome ad that has no bypass on it.  I called them and they told me that my IE-8 is "out of date" it will not display the new 2.0 web page.  So they are pushing Googlechrome to replace Microsoft IE 8 and prior versions.  My OS is XP, XP can't process IE version 9 or above.  So we have Microsoft pushing their new OS 8 and geographica pushing Googlechrome - a fine state of affairs for America.

National Geographic web site - National Geographic and IBM's Genographic Project Atlas of the Human Journey explores early human migration routes and describes the highlights along that journey.  Allows direct access to the Time Line Eras, Journey Highlights, and Genetic Markers or Haplogroups that interest you most. Go there to learn more about ancient human migration through detailed text, photographs, maps, time lines, videos, and more.  Oct, 2008: I have learned that these folks base all their output on 12 markers - It seems that 12 markers is all it takes to place a person into an ancestry group determined to have a specific geographic beginning.
Global Environment and it's effect on DNA Evolution
Glossary of DNA Terms  //  A fairly good assembly of DNA terms
Human Genome and General DNA News

I find it difficult to seperate DNA information by era therefore, I am now trying to assemble all DNA that is not directly related to myself or family into a DNA section of its own.  Please bear with me as I work this out.
Niall (of the nine hostages)

In 2006, a group of researchers explored the frequency of haplogroup R1b and the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype (WAMH) in Ireland. They showed that haplogroup R1b accounts for 85.4% of the lineages in Ireland, but that a distinctive Haplotype is found there at a frequency of 8.2 to 21.5%. The authors attribute this Y-chromosome signature to Niall of the Nine Hostages, a medieval warlord.

Oghgul Project*  //  ON WEB - This project is best for mtDNA testing because it is not restricted to a specific family Surname.

Ogle Project*  //  ON WEB - Sign up, intended to help identify our Ogle Ancestors, restricted to the Ogle bloodline.

Ogle Family DNA Project  //  Sign up help us finally discover our Ogle Ancestors - a project of OOFA
Project Pricing advantage:  FTDNA provides a discount for purchasing through a Project as opposed to buying direct from FTDNA.  Go to and enter your Surname in the "Search your last name" block, select from the Ogle or the Oghgul project or a different project you wish to join.  Or you can click the oghgul or ogle link above for a quick connect.
Project Page2

Working e-mail from FTDNA, and information that came with the DNA kit from FamilytreeDNA.  This may give an idea of what to expect before you order.
Soothe Your Worries*

A while ago a customer sent FTDNA a copy of the reply she received from someone that she was trying to bring into her family project.  It had so many misconceptions that we thought: "we need to publicize this and respond one by one to that person's claims".  Click on "Soothe your worries" at left to read the facts.
FACs listing

Do SNPs ever “mutate back?”
How does Y-Chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroup prediction work?
How are haplogroups and their subclades named?
What is the geographic and historic origin of my Y-Chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroup?
How do I know which SNPs make sense for me to order?
Do I have to order a Y-Chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) STR test before I take a SNP test?
Can I skip extensive SNP testing and just test for a downstream Advanced Order SNP? If I am positive, may I assume that I also have all the SNPs above it?
Why has my Y-Chromosome haplogroup changed?
How many generations do the Y-Chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) SNP tests trace?
Why does Family Tree DNA’s Haplotree differ from other Y-DNA Trees?
How often does the Y-Chromosome Consortium update their tree?
I just got my results; now what?
I also tested at another company. They placed me in a different haplogroup. How can this be?
I have taken a Deepclade test in the past. Is it better to order the Geno 2.0 test or specific new SNPs?
Is there somewhere I can see a demonstration of how the results will look?
If Y-Chromosome haplogroups change, does that mean my results are wrong or inconclusive?
What are the past versions of the Y-Chromosome Consortium’s phylogenetic tree?
What was the first version of the Y-Chromosome Consortium’s phylogenetic tree?
What Y-Chromosome DNA phylogenetic nomenclature system does Family Tree
On the Y-DNA – Haplotree page, what do the letters and numbers in the Haplogroup Information box mean?
On Public Project Websites, why are some haplogroups shown in red? Why are other haplogroups shown in green?
Should I test my Y-Chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroup?
What is a Y-Chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) Haplogroup project?
What does a Y-Chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroup tell us?

Explain Paternal Lineages

Your Genetic Test are back  //  Now What? - New report from FTDNA - posted 2/7/2012

Other Contacts

-- Ulster Historical foundation
-- Ogle/Ogles Family Association
-- WFN Forum.Net
-- World Families . net
-- Ogle DNA Project - 06/24/2005

On the Y-DNA - Ancestral Origins page, are only exact matches shown?

On The Y-DNA – Matches page, relevant matches are shown. Depending on the testing level, these are:

Y-DNA12 Matches (exact matches only)*
Y-DNA25 Matches (up to 2 differences)
Y-DNA37 Matches (up to 4 differences)
Y-DNA67 Matches (up to 7 differences)
Y-DNA111 Matches (up to 10 differences)

* For Y-DNA12 matches, 11 out of 12 matches are only shown when both customers belong to the same group project.

Why are there more matches on the Y-DNA - Ancestral Origins page than on the Y-DNA - Matches page?

The Y-DNA – Ancestral Origins page of your myFTDNA account compares you against our entire Y-DNA results database. This includes customers you see on your Y-DNA – Matches page, research participants from academic studies, customers who have not signed the release form, and customers who have chosen not to compare against the entire database on that number of markers. As a result, you may have more entries on the Y-DNA – Ancestral Origins page than the Y-DNA – Matches page.

On my Y-DNA Ancestral Origins page, why do some of my matches show “United States” in the Country column?

The Y-DNA – Ancestral Origins page of your myFTDNA account lists the country of origin reported to us by the people that you match. This country of origin is meant to be the country from which your paternal ancestors came before recent migrations to the Americas. We have recently added a United States (Native American) choice to help users tell the difference between a true Native American ancestry and a colonial American ancestry. You should treat the United States entries as “Unknown Origin” unless the Y-DNA test results indicate Native American ancestry on your paternal line.

On my Y-DNA Ancestral Origins page, why are so many different countries listed?
When you have one of the more common Western European Y-Chromosome DNA STR haplotypes, the results will include matches from many European countries on your Y-DNA – Ancestral Origins page. This happens most often at the Y-DNA12 level of testing. As at this level your matches may date to a common ancestor several thousands of years in the past, the DNA signature has had time to spread throughout a large region or a continent during historic migration events.

Testing additional markers by upgrading to the Y-DNA37, Y-DNA67, or Y-DNA111 test will confine your matches to those who are more recently related. This will also reduce the number of locations to those that are relevant.

Why isn’t my ancestor’s country of origin listed?
Your information is not included in the table on the Y-DNA – Ancestral Origins page for your own myFTDNA account. The table on this page is a comparison of your results against others in the database. It lets you see what others with similar results to you entered for their country of origin. If you do not see your ancestor’s country of origin listed, then you are the only person with your DNA signature from that country in our database. Depending on the level of uniqueness of your results you may see more or less information hinting about your paternal or maternal country or origin. As the database grows, there are increasing chances of giving better hints about the ancestral country of origin.

On the Y-DNA - Haplogroup Origins page, why is more than one haplogroup listed?
The Y-DNA – Haplogroup Origins page displays the haplogroup and origins for your exact and near matches. Due to evolutionary convergence, you may see multiple haplogroups that are near matches.

Why Y STRs and how are they used?

STRs - Short Tandem Repeats:

STRs are very useful in a multi-pronged approach, but should not be used out of context with SNPs. STRs support the formation of useful matching database because:

1) They have long legacy of usage and standardization, even beyond genealogy into forensic sciences.
2) They are consistently measured in standard STR based panels.
3) For the legacy STRs (111), everyone gets measured and issues like no calls are rare.

STRs are useful in several ways

1) Team or cluster building and finding people who might be closely related to you.
2) Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) estimates.
3) As a guide (only) for advanced and deeper SNP testing.
4) Cross-checking and validation of newly discovered SNPs.
5) As differentiators at the tips of the branches (the leaves) in tree building as fenced in by SNPs. However STRs should not be used to assume branch placement as a replacement for SNPs.

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Why Y SNPs and how are they used?

SNPs - Single Nuclear Polymorphisms

SNPs support the discovery of the paternal lineage tree of mankind because:

1) They have a very strict father-son inheritance property
2) They are generally very stable, making for a high reliability tree
3) They have a very high opportunity for mutation, providing great resolution in the branching

SNPs are critical for their benefits.

1) SNPs can document a Y DNA tree that is very accurate, granular and comprehensive from the ancient to current genealogy.
2) Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) estimations.
3) Eliminating false matches caused by STR convergence.

Using either SNPs counting or STR variance, TMRCA estimates are subject to error ranges and anomalies. All mutations can occur in fits and starts. There is a lot we don't know.

Why Big Y Next Generation Sequencing for discovering SNPs?

Big Y is probably the most important Y DNA test that you can take because it goes beyond testing for public and known SNPs. Big Y discovers your own line of SNPs rather than just the known SNPs. Here's an analogy to help explain Big Y using the Lewis and Clark Expedition with an aviation twist.

Lewis and Clark's primary objectives included to explore and map the newly acquired territory, find a practical route across the western half of continent. They left St. Louis in 1804 and arrived at the Pacific Ocean late 1805. In this analogy, we think of the Pacific Coast as our genetic genealogy homeland, a place or status where our genealogically known family connects to the Y DNA tree of mankind. It is not the same for all of us, as each of our families has a distinctive location. Lewis and Clark founded what would be Fort Clastrop on he edge of Astoria, Oregon. From Astoria Column, a tower, you can see the Pacific Ocean, the Cascade Mountains and the Columbia River.

Single SNP testing is like flying a two seater from St. Louis and hoping to land in Astoria without knowing where Astoria is. The plane is low priced and reliable but has bad gas mileage. More importantly, Astoria may not even have coordinates on the map yet or a landing strip. This kind of approach is most applicable when someone who is highly probable to be on the edge of your genealogically known family has already done a Big Y test and has built a very tall tower or lighthouse to go with a new landing strip. That tower in Astoria could be thought as a super version of Astoria Column and it is built with 111 Y STRs.

Fixed SNP panel/pack testing is like flying the two seater from St. Louis hopscotching across the country, landing at a handful of small airports and getting out and taking a good set of photos at each location and then deciding the next location to fly to. Fixed SNP packs/panels are a good, low entry price way to go, but suffer the same problem any fixed SNP test suffers. What if your Astoria hasn't been discovered? Perhaps, even your State of Oregon has not been discovered. You also might have troubles if your eyesight or navigation system isn't so good. For good navigation you'd want to have at least 67 Y STRs although 111 is a better long term investment.

Big Y Discovery testing is like having a super high speed, fuel efficient jet traversing back and forth on multiple paths high across the sky on mostly clear days taking special photos of the countryside between St. Louis and the Pacific Coast. It is scanning over 11 million locations. If your Astoria turns out to be San Diego, Long Beach or Tacoma, that's okay. Big Y is accomplishing what Lewis and Clark were doing, mapping the route for settlers to follow in the form of lower entry price tests. Unfortunately, your family of genealogical record might not even be on the maps for the mass migration of settlers to come, that is without Big Y discovery testing. It's just a fact of the Y chromosome just as it is of the geography. The settlers won't go to a place when they don't know where it is or even know it exists.

Only a member of your genealogical family can discover your Astoria and erect the Astoria Column of 111 STRs for the settlers. We need leaders from each family.

I'm asking you to start thinking about Big Y if you haven't already. Be a lead-explorer! There are now several thousand Big Y results completed for the R1b haplogroup. It works. Big Y results can come in as quickly as 4 weeks (FTDNA uses an 8-10 week estimate). Pooling of resources at the project/family/surname levels can help share the cost, but be look for holiday, DNA Day, Father's Day sales promotions.

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