New information came to my attention, yesterday Oct 20, 2011.
We are aware that there is an "earth wobble" similar to what a top will do
while spinning but slowing down. Archaeologist and geologist
now know when the last rains fell on the Sahara, it was 5,500 years ago.
The earth wobble occurs every 20,000 years and this shifts the monsoons
from the south back into the Sahara. Human and goat remains have
been found dated within 10,000 and 6,000 years ago. Theory is that
humans left Africa more than once, and the first time was about 70,000
years ago, but our hominid cousins may have left African or even entered
Africa many times, and it may have been each time the wobble moved the
rains into the Sahara. It seems that the shift of the rains
occurs within a 200 year period, now what I really would like to know is
how long the rains last each wobble.
The deserts of our southwest and Northern Mexico are also in the zone for climate change when this wobble flips. It's possible there was a lot more water running thru the grand canyon than previously every considered.
11/26/2014: I have just discovered a new web site that deals with meteor strikes, http://www.barry.warmkessel.com/4related.html More than just Interesting. I don't know if this data is locked in stone in that research is on-going but what they know today seems very probable based on DNA tracking after the Manitoba volcanic explosion which pushed humans almost to extinction about 80,000 years ago.
General Overview - All dates are AD unless noted - Credits are listed as "(5)" at bottom of page
|4.4 million years ago||We have a new "oldest" upright walker on the path to us. A hominid called "Ardipithecus ramidus" this hominid walked the forest of Ethiopia, when the region was a lush forest with plenty of rain.|
|3.8 million years BC||The australopithecines were the first primate to be
bi-pedal. There are many theroies as to why this evolutionary
event occurred. One was proposed by Dr. Lovejoy, he associated bipedalsim
with pair-bonding. Pair-bonding means that males and females
mated for life. Bidpealism permitted the male to go widely and
gather food that he could carry back and share with his mate and
offspring. We have physical evidence that shows the presence
of bipedalism in the australopithecines. In fossil discoveries
the locking knee joint, pelvis, ankle, foot and lower limbs, the shape of
the pelvis and the relationship between the head and the spinal column.
Mary Leakey found the oldest evidence of bipedalism, which were the
Laetoli footprints found in Tanzania. These footprints showed
defining characteristics of walking, like a strong heel strike, splayed
toes, and a slight arch.
|2.58 million - 10,000 BC||In 2009 the International Union of Geological Sciences, an international non-governmental organization devoted to international cooperation in the field of geology. (IUGS) confirmed a change in time period for the Pleistocene era, changing the start date from 1.8 to 2.588 million years BC. Fossils identified as Homo erectus span much of the Pleistocene era.|
|700,000 BC||ATHENS, Greece (AFP) - Archaeologists on the island of
Crete have discovered what may be startling evidence of one of the world's
first sea voyages by human ancestors, evidence indicates that early
humans could navigate across open water thousands of years earlier than
previously thought. The Greek Culture Ministry statement
said experts from Greece and the U.S. have found rough axes and other
tools thought to be between 130,000 and 700,000 years old close to
shelters on the island's south coast.
From the Genographic project deciphering Neanderthal DNA: "We know that Neanderthals are much closer to us than chimps," said Ed Green, head of biomathematics in Pääbo's group in Leipzig, "so the reality is that for most of the sequence, there's no difference between Neanderthals and [modern] humans." But the differences—less than a half percent of the sequence—are enough to confirm that the two lineages had begun to diverge around 700,000 years ago.
|638,000 BC||The last Yellowstone eruption was 638,000 BC. Called a super volcano the eruption was so powerful that it turned particles of sand into tiny slivers of glass. Animal fossils of the period show a type of bone disease that only occurs by lung damage. Science now knows that the Yellowstone Caldera sets over one of the earth's "hotspots". The lava stem is about 450 miles underground and rises at a slight angle. Heavy ash from the explosion fell about 1000 miles from the crater. Since about 1920s-30s water in one of the crater's lakes is being pushed north, because the south end is bulging upward. There have been 15 eruptions from this caldera over the last one million years.|
|400,000 BC||World's oldest human remains claimed found in Israel AFP/Tel Aviv University-HO/File. Israeli archaeologists have discovered human remains dating from 400,000 years ago, The find may be the earliest evidence yet for the existence of modern man, and could upset theories of the origin of humans, challenging conventional wisdom that Homo sapiens originated in Africa, the leader of excavations in Israel said.|
|398,000 BC||Oldest use of fire by homo erectus -- Claims for the earliest definitive evidence of control of fire by a member of Homo range from 0.2 to 1.7 million years ago (James, Steven R. (February 1989). "Hominid Use of Fire in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene: A Review of the Evidence". Current Anthropology (University of Chicago Press)).|
|123,000 BC||Oldest use of fire by early humans|
|75,000 BC||Sophisticated methods of making sharp stone tools have been around a lot longer than archaeologists thought. Researchers have found evidence of a technique called pressure flaking as much as 75,000 years ago at Blombos Cave in South Africa. That's about 50,000 years earlier than previously thought, according to the report in Friday's edition of the journal Science.|
largest volcanic eruption on Earth in the past millions of years took
place in Indonesia 74,000 years ago and researchers can now link the
colossal eruption with the global climate and the effects on early humans.
Seventy four thousand years ago another Super volcano exploded on the island of Toba in the Indonesian Pacific. This explosion is thought to be the most powerful to ever occur on earth. This occurred at about the start of the last interglacial period. The effect was felt all the way to Africa. Some scientist believe there were about 150,000 people on earth at that time. Global temperatures dropped about five degrees for many years. Today human genetics have been traced to a small "bottle neck" of perhaps as few as two thousand of our ancestors that survived. These numbers do not seem to account for the Neanderthal people, they are know to have existed almost 300,000 years, including a lap-over in Europe with Cro-Magnon as recent as perhaps 20,000 years ago. The extinction of Neanderthal may have been a combination of this new natural blow to life on Earth and the better hunting skills, or hunting methods of the Cro-Magnon.
2014/08/30 Update: The Neanderthal controversy continues. The Neanderthal gnome has been fully decoded. DNA testing on an expanded present day population has led to "proof" that Neanderthals still live, their DNA has been identified in some modern population. Some scientist now say that rather than being annihilated the Neanderthal was absorbed into modern population by interbreeding.
|50,000 BC||start of the Mousterian Pluvial in North Africa|
|47,000 BC||Australia’s Warratyi Rock Shelter Excavated. Proofing human migration to Australia 49,000 years ago was sooner that previous thought. (http://oglekin.org/Paleontology/Paleo-News/Paleo_news_page05.htm)|
|43,000—41,000 BC||At Ksar Akil in Lebanon, ornaments and skeletal remains of
modern humans are dated to this period
Denisova hominin live in the Altai Mountains
|40,000—35,000 BC||Early cultural center in the Swabian Alps, earliest figurative art (Venus of Schelklingen), beginning Aurignacian; the first flutes appear in Germany; Lion-Human, from Hohlenstein-Stadel, Germany created. It is now in Ulmer Museum, Ulm, Germany.|
|40,000--28,000 BC||The Aurignacian period: is an Upper Paleolithic stone tool tradition, usually considered associated with both Homo sapiens and Neanderthals throughout Europe and parts of Africa. The Aurignacian's big leap forward is the production of blade tools by flaking pieces of stone off a larger piece of stone, thought to be an indication of more refined tool making.|
|35,000 BC||The Cro-Magnon were the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) of the European Upper Paleolithic. The earliest known remains of Cro-Magnon-like humans are radiometrically dated to 35,000 BC. Zar, Yataghyeri, Damjili and Taghlar caves in Azerbaijan.|
|32,000 BC||Europeans understand how to harden clay figures by firing them in an oven at high temperatures.|
|30,000 BC||Invention of the bow and arrow. End of the
Mousterian Pluvial in North Africa.
A new study presented a dramatic finding – the genome of one of our ancient ancestors, the Denisovans, contains a segment of DNA that seems to have come from another species that is currently unknown to science. The discovery suggests that there was rampant interbreeding between ancient human species in Europe and Asia more than 30,000 years ago. But, far more significant was the finding that they also mated with a mystery species from Asia.
|30,000 BC—28,000 BC||Wall painting with horses, rhinoceroses and aurochs,
Chauvet Cave, Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardéche gorge, France, is made.
Discovered in December 1994.
|30,000 - 18,000 BC||Around the time the Neanderthals vanished ice core data suggest that from about 30,000 years ago until the last glacial maximum about 18,000 years ago, the Earth's climate fluctuated wildly.|
|29,000—25,000 BC||Venus of Dolní Věstonice. It is the oldest known ceramic
in the world. The Red Lady of Paviland lived around 29,000–26,000 years
ago. Recent evidence has come to light that he was a tribal
|24,000 BC||Start of the second Mousterian Pluvial in North Africa.
|22,000 BC||Neanderthals believed to have become extinct in Europe.
Last Glacial Maximum:
|20,000 BC||End of the second Mousterian Pluvial in North Africa.
Last Glacial Maximum. Mean Sea Levels are believed to be 110 to 120
meters (361 to 394 ft) lower than present, with the direct implication
that many coastal and lower riverine valley archaeological sites of
interest are today under water.
|18,000 BC||Spotted Horses, Pech Merle cave, Dordogne, France are
painted. Discovered in December 1994.
|18,000 BC—12,000 BC||Mammoth-bone village in Mezhirich, Ukraine is inhabited.|
|18,000 BC—11,000 BC||Ibex-headed spear thrower, from Le Mas d'Azil, Ariège, France, is made. It is now at Musée de la Préhistoire, Le Mas d'Azil.|
|17,500 - 3,800 BC||Original dates were BP - The BP base
number is Jan 1, 1950 a date cudgeled from the same place the government
gets their fiscal numbers. I have adjusted these dates to BC.
Credit for this table, marked ** is "The Gobero project", people of the green Sahara.
|** 17,500 - 11,200 BC||Phase 1: Paleodune accumulation: Transient presence of
12,700 BC: Humans began returning to England after the last Ice Age. Technological advances have allowed researchers at Oxford University and London's Natural History Museum to date bones more accurately. New dates show a much narrower range of dates, corresponding precisely to climate warming, providing evidence that the archaeological material in Gough's cave could have accumulated over perhaps as little as two to three human generations, centred on 14,700 years ago.
|** 11,200 - 10,000 BC||Phase 2 Early Holocene occupation (dark-stained skeletons)|
|** 9,700 - 8,700 BC||Arid Interruption: Very dry phase; could have started 8,000 years ago, so map of green Sahara then is not a problem|
|** 8,700 - 6,000 BC||Phase 3 Mid-Holocene: All but the earliest skeletons from this phase are light-colored (unstained). An arid interval lasting as long as 1,000 years (from about 8,000 to 7,000 years ago), drove people from the Gobero area. When humid conditions returned, humans moved back into the area.|
|** 6,000 - 3,800 BC||Phase 4 Transient presence: Desert dries up to
present state and does so within 200 years.
|17,000 BC||Spotted human hands, Pech Merle cave, Dordogne, France are painted. Discovered in December 1994.|
|17,000 BCE—15,000 BC||Hall of Bulls, Lascaux caves, is painted. Discovered in
1940. Closed to the public in 1963.
Bird-Headed man with bison and Rhinoceros, Lascaux caves, is painted.
Lamp with ibex design, from La Mouthe cave, Dordogne, France, is made. It is now at Musée des Antiquités Nationales, St.-Germain-en-Laye
|16,500 BC||Paintings in Cosquer cave, where the cave mouth is now under water at Cap Margiou, France were made.|
|15,000 BC||Bison, Le Tuc d'Audoubert, Ariège, France.|
|15,000 BC – 12,000 BC||Paleo-Indians move across North America, then southward
through Central America.
Pregnant woman and deer (?), from Laugerie-Basse, France was made. It is now at Musée des Antiquités Nationales, St.-Germain-en-Laye.
|14,300 BC||Meteor strike from Swarm B
|14,000 BC||Paleo-Indians searched for big game near what is now the
Hovenweep National Monument.
Bison, on the ceiling of a cave at Altamira, Spain, is painted. Discovered in 1879. Accepted as authentic in 1902.
Domestication of Reindeer.
|13,000 BC||Beginning of the Holocene extinction. Earliest
evidence of warfare (found in the Americas)
|12,945 BC||Meteor strike from swarm A|
|11,900 BC||The Younger Dryas impact event is a contested hypothesis that an air burst from a purported comet above or even into the Laurentide Ice Sheet north of the Great Lakes set all of the North American continent ablaze around 12,900 years ago. The hypothesis attempts to explain the extinction of many of the large animals in North America and the unproven population decreases in the North American stone age Clovis culture about at the end of the Pleistocene epoch. Proponents claim the existence of a charred carbon-rich layer of soil found at some 50 Clovis-age sites across the continent. It has been criticized for not being consistent with paleoindian population estimates. Impact specialists have studied the claim and concluded that there never was such an impact, in particular because various physical signs of such an impact cannot be found. Evidence supporting the theory however has been further suggested by the 2012 paper presented to the PNAS (T.E. Bunch et al.) which looked at apparent high temperature impact melt products found in multiple sites of the 'black mat' across three continents dating to 12,900 years ago. This is further indicated by the discovery (Kurbatov et al. 2010) of the presence of a rich layer of nanodiamonds in the Greenland ice sheet coinciding with this date.|
|11,600 BC||Meteor strike from Swarm B
|11,500 BC —10,000 BC||Wooden buildings in South America (Chile), first pottery vessels (Japan).|
|11,000 BC||First evidence of human settlement in Argentina.
The Arlington Springs Man dies on the island of Santa Rosa, off the coast
of California. Human remains deposited in caves which are now
located off the coast of Yucatán.
Meteor strike from Swarm B
|10,600 BC||Meteor strike from Swarm A|
|10,500 BC||Stone Age Creswellian culture settlement on Hengistbury
Head dates from around this year
|9,600 BC||Meteor strike from Swarm A|
|9000 BC||First evidence of plant domestication in hills above Tigris river|
|8770-8460 BC||Star Carr is a Mesolithic archaeological site in North Yorkshire, England [East coast]. It is around five miles south of Scarborough. [South of New Castel and Ogle] It is generally regarded as the most important and informative Mesolithic site in Great Britain. Current radiocarbon dates from the site itself indicate occupation from around 8770 BC until about 8460 BC, with a possible period of abandonment between 8680 BC and 8580 BC. [Ref Wickipedia "Star Carr"]|
|8,300 BC||Meteor strike from Swarm B|
|7,800 BC||Meteor strike from Swarm A|
|6,800 BC||Meteor strike from Swarm A|
|6,200 BC||Meteor strike from Swarm A|
|6,000 BC||By this time China was cultivating rice|
|5,500 - 5,000||Ancient DNA Indicates Farmers, not Just Farming, Spread
West. The Genographic Project published a study in the
journal PLoS Biology revealing the complex genetic changes that occurred
in early European populations. Studying mitochondrial DNA, the researchers
analyzed human remains at one of the first farming sites in Europe, from a
well-documented archaeological site in Germany inhabited around 5500-5000
BC. "Our results reveal that the first farmers in Europe were
indeed invaders with revolutionary new ideas, rather than populations of
Stone Age hunter-gatherers who already existed in the area", Doc Wolfgang
|5000-4000 BC||Changes of mtDNA in core Europe occurred. New "H"
Haplogroups show up in the skeleton remains after this period but no one
knows where these new people came from. Neither do they know where
the original inhabitants went.
5,000 BC Meteor strike from Swarm B
4,900 BC An explosive eruption of Hasan Dagi volcano, Turkey
4,500 BC Meteor strike from Swarm B
|4000 BC||WASHINGTON (AFP) - Archaeologists said Tuesday they had found the world's oldest known winery in a cave in Southern Armenia, indicating that humans were distilling grapes during the Copper Age, using biochemical techniques to identify a dry red vintage made about 6,000 years ago.|
|3900 BC||YEREVAN, Armenia – Boris Gasparian an Armenian
archaeologist says that scientists have discovered a skirt that could be
5,900-year-old. Pavel Avetisian, the head of the Institute of
Archeology and Ethnography in Yerevan, said a fragment of skirt made of
reed was found during recent digging in the Areni-1 cave in southeastern
Armenia. Avetisian said that the find could be one of
the world's oldest piece of reed clothing. Earlier excavation
in the same location has produced what researchers believe is a
5,500-year-old shoe, making it the oldest piece of leather footwear known
to researchers. Boris Gasparian, an Armenian archaeologist who
worked jointly with U.S. and Irish scientists at the site, said they also
found a mummified goat that could be 5,900-year-old, or more than 1,000
years older than the mummified animals found in Egypt.
|3500 BC||Meteor strike from Swarm A|
Ötzi the iceman, a 5313 year old mummy discovered in
the Ötztal Alps region on the border between Austria and Italy. Found
with him was his clothing and equipment suited for travel. Found also was
that he had been murdered, shot by an arrow that cut thru a major artery,
he bled to death internally. I am intrigued by the possibility that the
3300 date and the 3123 date might not be off by a few years. There is but
177 years between these two estimates. One item found with the iceman was
his copper ax; it must have been of great value. So why was he murdered
if not for his equipment. Was there a rain of meteors in this area at
this time, did the superstitious inhabitance blame him, it has certainly
happened before. (last update Nov, 2013)
Sodom and Gomorra
destroyed: Christian Faith tells us it was the hand of God that destroyed
these coastal sites using fire and brimstone from the sky. // In 2013 AD
some scientist are reporting they have found a natural reason these cities
were destroyed. They say it was a meteor or comet that struck in the in
the Ötztal Alps region, on the border between Austria and Italy, spreading debris
into outer space which then fell back onto the dead sea area, These
coastal towns were in the direct line of fire. // This does
not necessarily contradict the bible's story of Lot's family being saved
|3000-500 BC||In Europe the language is
Proto-Indo-European-Germanic. Extensive Migration of
Indo-European speakers to India, Greece and Western Europe.
Neolithic Age: Indo-Europeans living in North Central Europe.
|3000 BC||(5) The copper
culture starts in Asia Minor and Europe and North America. Mining
operations for pure copper start in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Some
researchers have theorized that possibly the Rock Lake Wisconsin area
became a winter base camp below the heavy snow line for the foreign
miners who call their site TYRANENA 1 perhaps based from the native
American languages or of their own creation. From TYRANENA 1 the
traders travel down the Rock River to the Mississippi to the Gulf of
Mexico and to distribute the copper cargo and some may possibly sail
across the Atlantic back to North Africa and Europe with their rough
copper ingots. The TYRANENIANS' build rock pyramidal structures and
tombs for their dead on the banks of a small lake in a valley where a
river runs through. (Note 01)
3000 BC Meteor strike from Swarm A
|2785 BC||Yersinia pestis, the bacteria that
causes plague, has been detected in DNA obtained from Bronze Age tooth
samples by a team of scientists led by Eske Willerslev, then of the
University of Copenhagen. (Note 2)
|2400 BC||Demise of Egypt's Old Kingdom was cause by a
severe drought which corresponded to an unusual cold period in Greenland.
Mt Ararat is a quite volcano pair, that is though to have erupted in 2400
BC. Unknown if this had to do with climate change but it is suspect
as having made a change to Nile river flow.
|2350 BC||3000 BC Meteor strike from Swarm C|
|1600 BC||3000 BC Meteor strike from Swarm B|
|1588 BC||(5) The first great Michigan mining epoch ends and possibly with it any further transatlantic trade as the need for copper is smaller as the bronze age draws to a close, as Iron is found to be a more suitable metal. Mining operations end on Michigan's Upper Peninsula. TYRANENIANS pack up and go home. The postglacial activity fills this small glacier-created valley and the structures are inundated and thereby protected. Local Indians regard this area as off limits and sacred. They can still see the tops of the 'Rock Tepees' as evidence to their oral history of the "Foreigner Kings" who came to this area. Later geological data confirms several prehistoric and historic water level rises.|
|1200 BC||3000 BC Meteor strike from Swarm B|
|700 BC||Hand Pollination of Date Palm by Assyrians and Babylonians|
|500-0 BC||The language is Germanic.
Celts in Britain. Contact of Roman Empire with Germanic peoples.
200 BC: 3000 BC Meteor strike from Swarm A
|* * *||
I find it interesting that the old word for knife or short sword is Seax, and the old spelling for Saxon is seaxe. While Angle is the same as today, but the Jutes are not mentioned in my available literature at all. Spelling used here is faithful to the original.
|0-300||The language is West Germanic. Expansion and power of the Roman Empire. Britain is under Roman control and influence. Growth and migrations of Germanic tribes.|
|27 BC - 14 AD||Cesar Augustus|
|14 - 37||Cesar Tiberius|
|37 - 41||Cesar Gaius "Caligula" meaning little boot or sandal. Named by the soldiers as a child. Extremely corrupt.|
|41 - 54||Cesar Claudius|
|43 - 337||Roman Britannia --
Christianity is the major religion, although most believe Druidic
influence still existed.
54 - 68 Cesar Nero // 68 - 69 Cesar Galba // 69 - 69 Cesar Otho // 69 - 69 Cesar Vitellius // 69-79 Cesar Vespasian
79 - 81 Cesar Titus // 81 - 96 Cesar Domitian // 96 - 98 Cesar Nerva // 98 - 117 Cesar Trajan // 117 - 138 Cesar Hadrian
138 - 161 Cesar Antoninus Pius // 161 - 180 Marcus Aurelius (with Lucius Verus 161-169) // 177 - 192 Cesar Commodus (co-Cesar with Marcus Aurelius 177-180) // 193 - 193 there were two Cesars, Pertinax and Didus Julianus //
193 - 211 Cesar Septimius Severus // 198 - 217 Cesar Caracalla (co-Cesar with Severus 198-211) //
209 - 212 Cesar Geta (co-Cesar with both Severus and Caracalla 209-211 and with Caracala alone 211-212) //
217-218 Cesar Macrinus // 218 - 222 Elagabalus // 222 - 235 Cesar Severus Alexander // 235-238 Cesar Maximinus //
238 Cesar Gordian I and II // 238 - 244 Cesar Gordian III // 244-249 Cesar Philip // 249-251 Cesar Decius //
251-253 Cesar Trebonianus Gallus // 253-260 Cesar Valerian (with son Gallienus) // 253-268 Cesar Gallienus //
268-270 Cesar Claudius II // 270-275 Cesar Aurelian // 276-282 Cesar Probus // 283-284 Cesar Carinus and Numerian //
284-305 Cesar Diocletian and the Tetrarchy // 306-313 Contantine I and the later Tetrarchy //
313-324 Cesars Constantine I and Licinius // 306-313 Cesar Contantine I and the later Tetrarchy // 313-324 Cesars Constantine I and Licinius // 324-337 Cesar Constantine I (alone) // 337-340 Cesar Constantine II (Co-emperor alongside his brothers which came to ill)
|43-447||Roman Britan -- Christianity is the major religion, although most believe Druidic influence still existed.|
|300-500||Language is Britannia is Proto Old
English. Breakup of the Roman Empire and the invasion of Britain by
500 AD: 3000 BC Meteor strike from Swarm A
|337 - 447||Missing from the para above is almost 100 years of Roman misdeeds before Roman troops were pulled out of Britannia for good. During this time the Roman Empire fell apart, and the invasion of Britain by Angles-Jutes-Saxons began.|
|373 & before||The Huns and Magyars (Hungarians) arrived in Scythia from the region of Meotis (Sea of Azov), near Persia. The Huns expelled the Russniaks living there.|
|373 & after||Attila began the onslaught of the rest of Europe.|
|410||Alaric the Visigoth and
his forces sacked the city of Rome.
I believe: The Visigoth were being pushed by Attila - They were allowed to cross into Roman territory but were otherwise ignored and were starving.
|447-613||The coming of the English. The date 447 is now agreed upon by many scholars as the date of arrival of the first Germanic tribesmen in Britannia. These tribes are most often referred to as Saxon, although, in the beginning they were more probably Jutes, Angles, and Frisians. The name for England is derived from the Angles. Octa and Ebusa, sons of Hengist, arrived with forty ships. They sailed round the country of the Picts, laid waste the Orkneys, and took possession of many regions, even to the Pictish confines and near the wall called Gual. They were given kingship of the countries in the north.|
|451||Attila lost a major battle against Roman Legions commanded by a boyhood Roman friend who had learned the tactics of the Huns. It is possible that Attila would have captured all of Gaul had he won this battle.|
|451||Jutes and Frisians move into what is now Kent.|
|452||Attila marched on Rome, but after a meeting with Pope Leo I, did not attack Rome, the city.|
|455-488||Hengeist - Kent|
|476||Danes control the Jute's old territories. Angles and Saxon joined the move and now control all of SE Britania.|
|477-491||Ælle - Sussex|
|488-512||Aesc - Kent|
|500-700||Language is Early Old English. Conversion of Anglo-Saxons. Northumbrian culture. Earliest surviving literature.|
Octa - Kent
|528||Danes control Angles old territory, now Denmark, while Anglo/Saxons controlling all of SE Britania have extended north to include present day Northumberland, which in those days extended above the current Scottish border. The western Roman empire has dissolved.|
|Before 535||In Mongolia the Avars were masters: They had many horses and invented stirrups to improve their fighting ability, especially with bow and arrow. During the disaster of the long period of cold, the Avars lost most of their horses, because horses can't eat the bad grasses that cattle can.|
When the sun went out. There was extreme cold, drought, famine, starvation, Cities
emptied of life.
more about Krakatoa.
|After 535||Soon after 535 the Turks took over control of the Steps. // Teotehucan, a city of 150,000, the people became sickened, mothers were in horrible health, the population collapsed, it took 300 years for a new civilization to build and replace. // Islam started around this time.|
|Eormenric ruled in Kent.
Ida ruled in Northumbria and reigned 12 years, he built Bamburgh.
|Between 550 AD and 600 AD a "mega El Niño" occurred in the Moche area of what is now Peru. Massive rainfall in the coastal regions for years was followed by years of drought, that totally destroyed the Moche civilization. Large numbers of skeletal remains of young men were found by archeologist, cut marks proved they were sacrificed by the Moche to appease the Gods - it didn't work. Mid century Constantinople, a terrible plague, the counters stopped counting. rats breed much faster in cold Climates.|
Ælle I - ruled in Northumbria
Æthelric ruled in Northumbria
Theodric ruled in Northumbria
Frithuwald ruled in Northumbria
Æthelberht I ruled in Kent - May also be spelled Ćthelbert, Aethelberht, Aethelbert, or Ethelbert.
Hussa ruled in Northumbria
Æthelfrith ruled in Northumbria - Killed in battle against Raedwald of East Anglia, who installed Edwin son of Ælla
|613-1017||Division of England into Kingdoms|
|616-640||Eadbald ruled in Kent|
|616-633||Edwin ruled in Northumbria - Son of Ælla, he was later recognized as "Bretwalda" meaning "Over Lord or High King". He conquered the Isle of Man and Gwynedd in northern Wales. Edwin was killed at the Battle of Hatfield Chase in 633.|
|-||After Edwin's death, Northumbria was split between Bernicia and Deira.|
|632-750||Islam rising - Muhammad began preaching Islam at Mecca before migrating to Medina, from where he united the tribes of Arabia into a singular Arab Muslim religious polity. He died at the age of 63 in the year 632 which began the rise of the caliphate and began a long civil war.|
|633-634||Osric ruled in the Deira part of Northumbria - Osric was a cousin of Edwin. Osric was killed the following year probably in battle against Cadwallon who was constantly warring.|
|633-634||Eanfrith ruled in the Bernicia part of Northumbria - Eanfrith was a son of Æthelfrith. Eanfrith was killed the following year probably in battle against Cadwallon who was constantly warring. Cadwallon was killed by Oswald in 634|
|634-642||Oswald ruled in Northumbria|
ruled in Kent
Egbert I ruled in Kent
Ecgfrith ruled in Northumbria
Hlothere ruled in Kent
Eadric ruled in Kent
Aldfrith ruled in Northumbria
|690-725||Wihtred ruled in Kent|
|700-1000||Language is Old English. Danish and Norse raids and invasions. Alfred and the ascendancy of Wessex. Establishment of the Danelaw. Cynewulf, Aelfric, and other writers emerge.|
|Nothelm (aka Nunna)
Watt ruled in Sussex
Eadwulf ruled in Northumbria
Osred ruled in Northumbria
|711||Muslims conquered and held Spain for 800 years|
|715||Æthelstan ruled in Sussex|
Coenred ruled in Northumbria
Eardwulf ruled in Kent - son of Eadberht I; reigned jointly with Æðelberht II; contemporary with Archbishop Cuðbert (740-760)
|Æthelbert ruled in Sussex
Osmund ruled in Sussex - jointly with Oswald, Ælfwald, and Oslac.
Eadbert ruled in Kent son of Wihtred; reigned jointly with his brothers Æðelberht II and Ælfric; Died about 762
Æthelbert II ruled in Kent - son of Wihtred; reigned jointly with his brothers Eadberht I and Ælfric, and nephew Eardwulf
Sigered ruled in Kent
Ealhmund ruled in Kent
Heahbert ruled in Kent
|779||Egbert II ruled in Kent|
|784||Ealhmund ruled in Kent|
|789:||The first three ships filled with Northmen from Horthaland landed.|
|793:||In this year fierce, foreboding omens came over the land of Northumbria, There were excessive whirlwinds, lightning storms, and fiery dragons were seen flying in the sky. These signs were followed by great famine, and on January 8th of the same year, the ravaging of heathen men destroyed God's church at Lindesfarne.|
|793-796||Eadbert ruled in Kent|
|796:||An eclipse of the moon occurred on March 28th between Cock-crow and dawn.|
|800:||Stalagmite deposits laid down in an Alpine cave has enabled a European team to confirm a Medieval Warm Period between AD 800 and 1300.|
|800:||Another eclipse of the moon occurred on January 16th, in the 2nd hour of the night.|
|800-900:||The demise of the Maya due to sever draught|
825-839 again in,
Æthelwulf ruled in Kent
There was a great battle with 25 ship companies of Danes at Carhampton.
The Danes held the field.
|865:||A great heathern force swarmed over Northumbria, burnt churches, villages, and crops in a wide radius of York. They burnt the School and Library. The brilliant cultural life of the north was obliterated. It's history for the remainder of the century is known only from chronicles kept elsewhere.|
|870:||The Fourth Council of Constantinople, 869-870 & the following council 879-880 represent a break between East and West Catholicism.|
|946:||Queen Eadgyth, died in 946. The granddaughter of Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, the Saxon princess married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, in 929. The half sister of Athelstan who is considered to have been the first king of all of England.|
|955-959||Eadwig "the all fair"|
|959-975||Edgar "the peaceful"|
|975-978||Edward II "the martyr"|
is Late Old English. Viking raids; Danish kings of England.
Norman conquest. Replacement of native ruling class with French
1000 AD: 3000 BC Meteor strike from Swarm C
Æthelred II the
"Unready". "Unready" is from Anglo-Saxon unræd, meaning
ill-advised. a son of King Edgar and Queen Ælfthryt.
His reign was much troubled by Danish, or Viking, raiders.
Æthelred was only about 10 (no more than 13) when his half-brother
Edward was murdered, and was not personally suspected of
participation. But as the deed occurred at Corfe Castle by
the attendants of Æthelred's mother it made it more difficult for the
new king to rally the nation against the invader, especially as a
legend of St Edward the Martyr soon grew. Later Æthelred ordered a
massacre of Danish settlers in 1002 and also paid tribute, or
Danegeld, to Danish leaders from 982 onwards.
In 1013, Æthelred fled to Normandy and was replaced by Sweyn, who was also king of Denmark.
Æthelred returned as king after Sweyn died the following year of 1014.
The Danish period. Danish kings did not rule
all of England, just much of the eastern half.
The first mention of the name Ogle in
available data. However, the word Thorpe of the name Oglethorpe is a
"Viking" word meaning near or neighbor, that might move the date to the 800s
can't be near what is not there). However, the 1055 date fits well with
the start of Danish control of that part of England.
King Harald III of Norway and
Tostig Godwinson, his English ally,
defeated the Northern Earls
Morcar in the
Battle of Fulford near York, England.
Road Unearthed at Battle of Fulford Site / August 07, 2015 England Fulford road (Public Domain) / FULFORD, ENGLAND—A team of archaeologists and volunteers has found a road at the site of the Battle of Fulford, fought on September 20, 1066. An invading Viking army led by King Harold Hardrada, assisted by Tostig Godwinson, the Earl of Northumbria, defeated Saxon troops from Mercia and Northumbria led by the earls Edwin and Morcar. The English army retreated along this route after suffering heavy losses. “This is clearly the main road heading south from York,” Chas Jones, leader of the Battle of Fulford Project, told Culture 24. “It will take a few months to analyze all of the material but there can be no doubt that this road was the axis for the battle fought at the ford in 1066,” he added. King Harold was killed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge five days later.
|1066-1087||William I -|
|1095 - 1099||First Crusade - On 27 November 1095, Pope Urban II called together the Council of Clermont, and urged all those present to take up arms under the sign of the Cross and launch an armed pilgrimage to recover Jerusalem and the East from the Muslims. The response in Western Europe was overwhelming. The specific crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were fought over a period of nearly 200 years, between 1095 thru 1291. The Crusades originally were launched in response to a call from the Christian Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia.|
|1101||Crusade - part of first|
|1107 - 1110||Norwegian Crusade - part of first|
|1147-1149||Second Crusade // The Northern Crusades contemporaneous with the Second, ranged from the 12th to the 16th century.|
|1150-1300||Language is Early Middle English. Gradual loss of continental possessions of English Kings. Continued dominance of French speakers in Politics, law and Church. Beginnings of revival of English in literature.|
|1202-1204||Fourth Crusade - Included the Albigensian Crusade and the Children's Crusade|
|1232||Chinese were using explosive missiles, or war rockets, for military purposes. It would not be long before the long bow would be out of use for the military.|
The blast that was recorded, and then forgotten, may also
have created a "Pompeii of the Far East," researchers suggest, which might
lie buried and waiting for discovery on an Indonesian island.
The source of an eruption that scattered ash from pole to pole has been
pinpointed as Samalas volcano on Indonesia's Lombok Island.
The research team, has now dated the event to between May and October of
1257. The findings were published today in the Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences. The previously unattributed
eruption was an estimated eight times as large as the famed Krakatau
explosion (1883) and twice as large as Tambora in 1815, the researchers
estimate. (Related: "Tambora: The Greatest Explosion in History.") "Until
now we thought that Tambora was the largest eruption for 3,700 years,"
Lavigne said, but the study reveals that the 1257 event was even larger.
Credit Brian Handwerk National Geographic Published September 30, 2013
|1300-1475||language is Middle English. Hundred Years War. Growth of Nationalism; decay of feudalism, Chaucer, Gower, Langland, "Gawain poet", Wyclif, Mystery and morality plays.|
|1312||The close adviser and probable lover of Edward II, Piers Gaveston, was murdered by a group of barons frustrated with their king's ineffectual rule. The next year the beleaguered king produced the son who became Edward III.|
|1327||Queen Isabella deposed her husband King Edward by force of arms. But Edward did not cease making trouble. Mortimer, the right hand man (some say lover) of the queen, charged 3 men including a William Ogle, with the task to dispose of the King. This they did and three years later were tried but allowed to escape abroad. This being 1327 abroad might have been across the channel to warm France, over the waves to green Ireland, or even to cool high Scotland. I will guess Scotland since Northumberland is just over the border|
The Black Death epidemic is estimated to have killed as much as
percent of the population of Europe. The plague is
thought to have returned every generation with varying virulence and
mortality until the 1700s. During this period, more than 100
plague epidemics swept across Europe. On its return in
1603, the plague killed 38,000 Londoners. Other notable
17th-century outbreaks were the Italian Plague of 1629–1631,
and the Great Plague of Seville (1647–1652), the Great
Plague of London (1665–1666), and the Great Plague of
Vienna (1679). There is some controversy over the identity
of the disease, but in its virulent form, after the Great Plague of
Marseille in 1720–1722, the Great Plague of 1738 (which
hit eastern Europe), and the Russian plague of 1770-1772,
it seems to have disappeared from Europe during the 19th century.
Asian tree rings explain historical plague outbreaks in Europe
Estimates suggest that up to half of England’s population died of the Black Death between 1346 and 1353. (Archaeological News).
|1358-1370||Illustrated Chronicle of Mark Kalt presents the origins and history of the Huns and Magyars (Hungarians), two tribes. This codex was written in Latin between AD 1358 and 1370|
|1410||That he (Sir Robert Ogle) was not buried there (St. Mary’s porch of the parish church of Whalton per his will) seems to be explained by the fact of there having been a plague raging at Hexham up to the year, 1410 (BOB pg 41) and the body could not be moved there.|
|1413||Henry V - 1422: Henry VI|
|1420 - 1460||Sir Robert Ogle of Northumberland was retained as Knight by Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury.|
|15 September 1436||Battle of Piperden where Scots under William, 2nd Earl of Angus, defeated English forces led by Percy and Sir Robert Ogle, near Berwick.|
|1443||Mentioned: Margaret Ogle; m. Sir Robert Harbotel, d. 14 Mar 1443.|
|1455||In May During the "War of the Roses" the knight Sir Robert Ogle and his 600 Marchmen broke the barriers and led the attack into the town square of St. Albans. King Henry, along with most of his army, was captured.|
|A younger daughter of Lord Ogle of Bothal castle in Northumberland was the mother of William Cavendish of Welbeck and Bolsover. He was Lord Lieutenant of Notthinghamshire and Derbyshire.|
|1475-1650||language is Early Modern English. Caxton and printing. Renaissance Humanism. Revived study of Greek and Latin classics. Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, Biblical translations. Age of discovery and exploration.|
|1495||On this same day and place (Bedlington 28 July 1495) an inquisition postmortem was held for William Ogle - his son Gawin is his heir.|
|1500||3000 BC Meteor strike from Swarm B|
|1521||November 13 Henry VIII(1521). Indenture of Mortgage by Thomas Lord Dacre of Gillysland to Robert Lord Ogle the manor of Netherton, Northumberland. Dame Anne, wife of Lord Ogle is mentioned.|
|1550 (LIA)||The Little Ice Age (LIA) Begins. It is generally agreed that there were three minima, (the coldest periods) first about 1650, second about 1770, and third about 1850, each separated by slight warming intervals.|
|1558||Elizabeth I was made Queen after her brother's will (Edward VI) was set aside - he had bequeathed the crown to Lady Jane Grey his first cousin.|
|1564 - 1730s||
The first half of the 16th century appears to have been
much warmer than the previous 150 years, which had seen a fairly steady
decline in temperatures after the Medieval Warm Period. However, the new
genial climate was not to last. In the middle of the century, after a
decade or so of exceptionally warm years-- warm enough for people to bathe
in the Rhine in January--a drastically sharp change occurred.
The winter 1564-65 was long and
bitterly cold and was the first of many that brought great hardship and
strife throughout Europe. Climatologists regard the next 150 to 200
years the climax of the Little Ice Age. On average, temperatures were
probably lower than in any similar episode since the end of the last major
Credits: From a report by Paul Reiter, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 4/7/2000.
|1578||July 20 Elizabeth (1578), (1) Right honorable William Howard, alias Lord William Howard and Dame Elizabeth, his wife (2) Thomas Ogle of Hepscott, Gentleman. Grant of village, town or Hamlet of West Duddon, Northumberland, in the parish of Stannington, for 21 years. Signed Thomas Ogle.|
|1580s||Cuthbert, seventh Lord Ogle of Bothal was the last of the aristocrats in Northumberland.|
|1588||Spanish Armada attacked England. In their attempt to return to Spain they were forced to sail north around. This was one of the worst years of the "Little Ice Age", Temperatures were below freezing in September. Storms sank 56 ships of the Armada, the surviving ships were so badly damaged they were scrapped.|
|1598||The outlaw David Elliot killed William Ogle. David Elliot was found holed up under the "protection" of the land sergeant Thomas Carleton. On July 4, 1598 members of the Ogle Clan caught and executed the outlaw. Carleton was outraged that anyone would dare challenge his authority. When he caught up with the Ogles they tried to placate him. He would have none of it and with his 6 men, charged into the Ogles with gun and sword flashing. An Ogle quickly shot him dead and his other men retreated. The Ogles were later tried but I have found no record of punishment.|
Mentioned: (New Co. History of
Northumberland, vol XIV P328; Hodson, Northumberland VolII, PartII, P.113)
follows: Phillis Ogle, d. 1606 - Daughter of
John Ogle // ?? Barbara who married John Ogle of Ogle Castle may have been Daughter of Ralph Fenwick of Stanton, J.U. // ?? Ralph Fenwick; M. Barbara Ogle, Daughter of John Ogle. b. Ogle Castle
|1611, 1619 (MinSS)||Minimum Sun Spots (MinSS)|
|1611||Archeologists at Jamestown have unearthed 400-year-old pipes for patrons, a trove of tobacco pipes personalized for a who's who of early 17th century colonial and British elites, underscoring the importance of tobacco to North America's first permanent English settlement.|
|1612||Sir John Ogle Knight: Member or investor in the third Virginia Charter, verified 12 march, 1612 by order of King James I.|
|1636, 1646||According to "The Kings War" a book by C. V. Wedgewood, Thomas Ogle advised King Charles I of a possible method to end the civil war. This is a most interesting book. The conditions in England at this time (plague 1636, 1646 sets the stage for the great migration to the Americas and Australia, and became the precursor of America's liberty.|
|1645-1715 (LIA)||Right in the middle of the Little Ice Age, solar activity as seen in sunspots was extremely low, with some years having no sunspots at all. This period of low sunspot activity is known as the Maunder Minimum. The low solar activity is also well documented in astronomical records. Astronomers in both Europe and Asia documented a decrease in the number of visible solar spots during this time period.|
|1650 (1st minima)||
April 27 - The Battle of Carbisdale: A Royalist army invades mainland
Scotland from the Orkney Islands but is defeated by a Covenanter army.
June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only one of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler.
|1650-1800||Language is Later Modern English. Settlement of America and growth of the British Empire. Opening of India and the Orient. Beginnings of industrial and scientific revolution. Augustan Age and Enlightenment.|
|1665-1666||The LAst Great Plague of London - a fifth of the population of London died in the last Great Plague of 1665.|
|1685||On 7 Aug 1685 William Ogle conveyed a messuage (a farm?) in Long Horsley to Robert Bullman for £300.|
William III & Mary II -- Known as William III in England and
Ireland, and William II in Scotland (4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was a
sovereign Prince of Orange by birth. From 1672 he governed as
Stadtholder William III of Orange over Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht,
Guelders, and Overijssel of the Dutch Republic.
From 1689 he reigned as William III over England and Ireland, and as William II over Scotland. William won the English, Scottish, and Irish crowns following the Glorious Revolution, in which his uncle and father-in-law, James II, was deposed. A Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. William was able to take the British crowns when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. His reign marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more-Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover.
William ruled jointly with his wife, Mary II, until her death on 28 December 1694. The period of their joint reign is often referred to as "William and Mary".
|1690, 1698 (MinSS)|
|1739-1740||Admiral Sir Chaloner Ogle (1681-1750) is mentioned in the book "The WHIG Supremacy 1714-1760" by Basil Williams, as commanding a fleet to the West Indies 1739, and reconnaissance of the French-Spanish fleet 1740.|
|1741||English fleet under Admiral Ogle begins assault on Cartagena.|
|1770 (2nd minima)||March 5 - Boston Massacre: 5 Americans killed by British troops in an event that would help start the American Revolutionary War 5 years later. Benning Wentworth, colonial governor of New Hampshire died. (b. 1696)|
|1776||The "Little Ice Age" hit again, in December, Washington and Troops crossing the Delaware were in danger of being sunk by ice flow. Two of his men froze to death on the march to Trenton.|
|1800-2007||Language is Recent and present day English. Independence and expansion of U.S. General education and literacy, Acceleration of scientific, industrial and technological research and development. Journalism, telephone, radio, motion pictures and television.|
|1815 (-1816)(LIA)||The volcano named Tambora in
Sumbawa, Indonesia erupted. The eruption caused the "Year
without a Summer" where daily minimum temperatures were abnormally low
in the northern hemisphere from late spring to early autumn.
Famine was widespread because of crop failures.
Prior to the eruption, the volcano may have been as tall as 13,000
feet (4,000 m). The 1815 eruption formed a caldera about 4 miles
(6 km) in diameter. The caldera is 3,640 feet (1,110 m) deep.
The eruption was the largest in recorded history to date. About
150 cubic kilometers of ash were erupted (about 150 times more than
the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens). Ash fell as far as 800
miles (1,300 km) from the volcano. See
Throughout the "Little Ice Age", the world also experienced heightened volcanic activity. 1816, became known as the Year Without A Summer, when frost and snow were reported in June and July in both New England and Northern Europe.
|1816||Mary Shelley at nineteen started the novel Frankenstein which has become better known as Frankenstein's Monster, at the Chapuis in Geneva, Switzerland. Mary completed the novel in May of 1817 and it was published January 1, 1818. The weather went from beautiful to tempestuous. Torrential rains and incredible lightning storms plagued the area, similar to the summer that Mary was born. This incredible meteorological change was due to the eruption of the volcano Tambora. Once again it is volcanoes that wreck havoc on the weather. It is mentioned that the year Mary was born there was also bad weather, so did another volcano blow in 1797-98, if so which one.|
|1845-1851 (LIA)||Irish Potato Famine, is the name given to a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1851. Though to have killed from 500,000 to one million Irish.|
|1850 (3rd minima)||The last Minima when our current warming cycle started.|
|1866||Mendel published a major set of principles on heredity based on tracking pea plants|
|1902||Last Known Knighted Ogle in England|
|1908||The Tunguska explosion occurred 2 years after Dads birth, and 3 years before Mom's birth. Most believe a meteor entered the atmosphere and exploded about 5 miles above earth surface. June 30 - July 2, 1998: An International Conference was held in Krasnoyarsk, Russia to sum up the past 90 years of research of the 1908 Tunguska event. Representatives from Russia, USA, UK, Italy, and Japan attended the conference. Please visit http://olkhov.narod.ru/conf98.htm for more info.|
|1953||James Watson and Francis Crick identify the double helix structure of DNA.|
|1991||The Pinatubo eruption caused a 2 degree drop in temperature around the globe.|
|2012||December: End of the current Myan Calendar, a new cycle begins.|
|2015||On the morning of February 15, 2013, a 7,000-ton asteroid crashed into the Earth's atmosphere. A blinding flash followed by a shuddering blast strong enough to damage buildings and send more than 1,000 people to the hospital. According to NASA, the Siberian meteor exploded with the power of 30 Hiroshima bombs and was the largest object to burst in the atmosphere since the Tunguska explosion. This event was captured by digital dashboard cameras. NOVA crews joined impact scientists in Russia as they hunted for clues about the meteor's origin and makeup. From their findings, it’s clear we came close to a far worse disaster.|
1). Francis, P., 1994, Volcanoes a planetary perspective: Oxford University Press, New York, 443 p.
2). Self, S., Rampino, M.R., Newton, M.S., and Wolff, J.A., 1989, Volcanological Study of the Great Tambora Eruption of 1815: Geology, v. 12, p. 659-663.
3). Sigurdsson, H., and Carey, S., 1989, Plinian and Co-Igmibrite Tephra Fall from the 1815 Eruption of Tambora Volcano: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 51,
4). Stothers, R.B., 1984, The Great Tambora Eruption of 1815 and Its Aftermath: Science, v. 224, 1191-1198.
5). Rock Lake Research Society
|36 Kerr, R. A. (3 September 2010). "Mammoth-Killer Impact Flunks Out". Science 329 (5996): 1140–1. Bibcode:2010Sci...329.1140K. doi:10.1126/science.329.5996.1140. PMID 20813931.|
|37 Pinter, Nicholas; Scott, Andrew C.; Daulton, Tyrone L.; Podoll, Andrew; Koeberl, Christian; Anderson, R. Scott; Ishman, Scott E. (2011). "The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: A requiem". Earth-Science Reviews 106 (3–4): 247. Bibcode:2011ESRv..106..247P. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.02.005.|
|38 THE CLOVIS COMET Part I:Evidence for a Cosmic Collision 12,900 Years Ago In the Mammoth Trumpet , Volume 23 Number 1, by Allen West GeoScience Consulting and Albert Goodyear South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology. Accessed August 2008|
|39 Buchanan, B.; Collard, M.; Edinborough, K. (2008), "Paleoindian demography and the extraterrestrial impact hypothesis", PNAS 105 (33): 11651–11654, Bibcode:2008PNAS..10511651B, doi:10.1073/pnas.0803762105, PMC 2575318, PMID 18697936|
|40 Richard A. Kerr (3 September 2010), "Mammoth-Killer Impact Flunks Out", Science 329 (5996): 1140–1, Bibcode:2010Sci...329.1140K, doi:10.1126/science.329.5996.1140, PMID 20813931.|
Note 01: (5).
In North American
Archeological circles, one of the great enigmas is who mined the
millions of pounds of pure raw copper from Michigan's upper peninsula
and Isle Royale in the time period between
3000 BC and 1200 BC. Indigenous use of copper was limited to
small-scale utilization and does not account for the prodigious
In European and Middle Eastern Archeological circles, one of the enigmas is where did all the copper come from to sustain the copper and Bronze Age cultures in the time period between 3000 BC and 1200 BC. Local sources were not sufficient and of the quality necessary to supply these large scale cultures.
Oral Native American history and lore deny any affiliation to the prehistoric mining operations; rather they cite 'ancient maritime foreigners' who mined the ' Red Rock '. All throughout North America there are archeological anomalies that point to the possibility of contact from Trans Pacific and Trans Atlantic visitors with pre-Columbian North American cultures. Additional, evidence suggest wide trade networks between the people of Mesoamerica and those magnificent indigenous cultures labeled as the "Mound Builders".
Rock Lake may
hold in its murky depths some of the answers to the identity of the
"Ancient Foreigners" that the local Indian lore speaks of.
Who are the people that built the 'Rock Tepees" (pyramidal
stone structures) that lay beneath the waters of Rock Lake and from where
did they come?