TOC Ancient Groups

First Americans

From Paleolithic thru Prehistory (Ancient to Modern)

TOC   Neanderthals
-- Pages 1 thru 4
TOC   Cro-Magnon - our direct ancestors
-- Pages 1 thru 2
TOC   General  Paleolithic  News
-- Pages 1 thru 24
TOC   Paleo  America
-- Pages 1 thru 6
TOC  Ancient News
-- Pages 1 thru 10
-- What is under Stonehenge
Page dedicated to Ítzi
-- Pages 1 thru 1
TOC DNA From All Ages:

I find it difficult to seperate DNA information by era therefore, I am now trying to assemble all DNA that is not directly related to myself or family into a DNA section of its own.  Please bear with me as I work this out.
Neolithic History
-- First page is about Sodom and Gomorrah, the destruction and the correlation to a meteor strike in the alps corresponding to the beginning of the last Maya calendar cycle.

From First Primate  thru the Paleolithic
(11 Million Years in Time)
Fossil Cousins  - They didn't make it
Page 1 Page 2
55 myr: New Fossils Push Evolution Back 8 Million Years - 6/07/13 2.7 Myr: Australopithecus aethiopicus 2.5 - 2.7 Myr
12 Myr: New Hominid 12 Million Years Old - 12 Myr 2.7-2.5 Myr: Australopithecus aethiopicus
12 Myr: Genetic Study Chimps & Humans Split Earlier - 6/17/14 2.5 Myr: Paranthropus robustus - 1-2.5 myr
11 Myr: Scientists have discovered Pliopithecus canmatensis - 11 Myr 2 Myr: New pre-human species offers evolutionary clues
6-7 Myr: Sahelanthropus tchadensis - 6-7 Myr 2.3-1.2 Myr: Australopithecus boisei or Paranthropus Boisei
4.4 Myr: Ardipithecus Ramidus (Ardi) Fossil is Oldest Human Ancestor 1.98 Myr: Australopithecus sediba
3.6 Myr: Australopithecus bahrelghazali 700 kya The human skull that challenges the Out of Africa theory
3.3 Myr: Australopithecus afarensis baby    
3.2 Myr: Australopithecus afarensis - Lucy    

Fossil Man  - on the path to us 
Page 1 Page 2
3.3 Myr: Human ancestors spent more time in trees 11,500-14,500 Kbc: Mysterious Chinese Fossils May Be New Human Species
2.4 Myr - 1.8: Homo Rudolfensis 11,500-14,500 Kbc: Extinct Relative Had Sex with Humans Far and Wide
2.33 - 1.44 Myr: Homo habilis found in Hemalayas - Frozen 800K Kbc: Europe's oldest footprints uncovered on English coast
2 Myr: Australopithecus Sediba 680K - 780K Kbc: Peking Man
1.95 Myr - 1.78: Flat-Faced Early Humans Confirmed 680K - 780K Kbc: Homo Erectus Invented "Modern" Living?
1.85-1.77 Myr: Homo erectus 600K - 350K Kbc: Homo Heidelbergensis "Heidelberg Man"
1.7 - 2.5 Myr: Homo ergaster an extinct chronospecies of Homo Pre 7,500 Kbp: Maghrebi origin of early south Iberian Neolithic
1.7 Myr: Homo georgicus a new species of Homo, First in Europe    

All these are WEB only links

-- Dino News - Interesting
-- - 8/06/14
-- Mexico Timeline by the history Channel - Interesting site

Little Ice Age: Was It Big Enough to be Global?   Describes the period between 1550-1700 when the global average temperature dropped between 1 and 2 degrees Celsius.
For all who believe in the literal reading of the Christian Bible, the passage "one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day" 2 Peter 3:8), is my basis to believe that (even though) God made all living things on earth (In 7 days per the text) there is no fixed human time for 7 of God's days,
since the God Creator is the equivalent of unfathomable wisdom and power throughout eternity, the passage might just as well have read "a million years or even a billion".  A million and numbers greater were not a fathomable concept by our farming and trading ancestors at the time of these teachings, therefore the passage was used to explain the concept of eternity to the listeners.

Therefore, there is reason why both the Bible and the archeologist are correct.  
Yet, even now I am troubled by some Bible passages for instance "let us make man in our image".   Who was "us"?   
Then, according to some concepts, the waters of the red sea parted as long as Moses held up his arms and staff - so how did Moses get across.

As an example, for 400 years (1604-1611) we were taught; in the truest sincerity, the story of Moses parting the "RED SEA" - it turns out that this was translated from the Greek which was translated from Hebrew, but a re-translation of the original Hebrew gives a corrected translation of "REED SEA". The Reed Sea is/was a tidal marsh near the Mouth of the Nile, and when the tide is out it can be walked across.  Pharaoh's forces were probably crossing when the tide came in and Moses no doubt knew this all along, setting a trap for Pharaoh's troops. There is no description of Moses - no one knows his actual likeness.

On the other hand, there is much controversy concerning the translation of Yum Suph (even the word Yum is also spelled Yam). In any case there is no consensus on the translation and there is also much controversy on the location of the nearby cities, so that tracing the exodus route has been and will probably remain an unknown.  It is possible that in the final translation it will be Red Sea. It is the curse of science to render the physical understandable to our inadequate human minds.  Even scientist tend to render themselves inadequate when pride and ego is involved.

Glossary of Epochs

The Lower Paleolithic lasted between 2.5 million-200,000 years ago (or at least according to one permutation), and it was when the Hominid ancestors of human beings, including Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus and Homo ergaster, roamed most of the earth and began making the first stone tools.

The Middle Paleolithic (ca 200,000 to 45,000 years ago) witnessed the evolution of Neanderthals and the first anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens, and some of the first glimmers of modern behaviors: sophisticated stone tools, caring for the elderly, hunting and gathering and some amount of symbolic or ritual behavior. 
Projectile points (used on spears or atlatl darts) are known from earlier prehistory, dating to the Middle Paleolithic.

By the Upper Paleolithic (45,000-10,000 years ago), the Neanderthals were in decline, and by 30,000 BC, they were gone. Modern humans spread all over the planet. The LSA is characterized by fully modern behaviors such as cave art, hunting, and making a wide range of tools in stone, bone, ivory and antler. 
The bow and arrow are known to have been invented by the end of the Upper Paleolithic.

The Mesolithic (or "middle stone") period (12,000-7000 years ago) is traditionally that time period in the Old World between the last glaciation at the end of the Paleolithic and the beginning of the Neolithic, when farming communities began to be established.   During the first three thousand years of what scholars recognize as the Mesolithic, a period of climatic instability made life very interesting in Europe, with gradual warming abruptly switching to 1200 years of very cold dry weather called the Younger Dryas.   By 9000 BC, the climate had stabilized to close to what it is today.

The Neolithic period beginning 10,000 years ago beginning in the Middle East:  Neolithic as a notion is based on an idea of an Old Stone Age (Paleolithic) and New Stone Age (Neolithic).   The definition of Neolithic is now seen as a "package" of characteristics such as groundstone tools, rectangular buildings, pottery, people living in settled villages and, most importantly, the production of food by developing a working relationship with animals and plants called domestication.

Quaternary Period, The
Covers the span of time from over one and a half million years ago to the present day.

The Pleistocene: 1.8 Million to 11,000 Years Ago

But, we still need a way to discuss humans and their ancestors as a separate group, so researchers have proposed a further breakdown of the Homininae subfamily, to include Hominini (humans and their ancestors), Panini (chimps), and Gorillini (gorillas).

So, roughly speaking, a Hominin is what we used to call a Hominid; a creature that paleoanthropologists have agreed is human or a human ancestor. These include all of the Homo species (Homo sapiens, H. ergaster, H. rudolfensis), all of the Australopithecines (Australopithecus africanus, A. boisei, etc.) and other ancient forms like Paranthropus and Ardipithecus.

kiloannum:  A word being used in a few scientific papers these days "kiloannum abbreviated (ka)" means 1000 years and is written as c. 55 Ka BP and you know that BP is before present used by people that do not recognize the Christian calendar. 

I seriously dislike this measure because I have read that 1950 is the base date for BP yet it is not significant in either geology or anthropology, it is no more than a date some politically correct bureaucrat devised.   That means to compare a BP date to a BC date one must subtract 1950 years from the BP date to arrive at the BC compare point.   I've tried that, results can be contradictory.  Then we run across the contridiction that some papers use BP as a replacement for BC - So unless the papers specify BC/AD one can't be sure of a valid date.

For ordinary purposes, the dates of events occurring prior to 15 October 1582 are generally shown as they appeared in the Julian calendar, with the year starting on 1 January, and no conversion to their Gregorian equivalents. The Battle of Agincourt is universally known to have been fought on 25 October 1415 which is Saint Crispin's Day.

As I understand, the Sumerians used the first writing called cuneiform.   Prior to that merchants had devised a pantheon of symbols to represent items of trade.

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