TOC Ancient Groups

First Americans  --   First Australians

From Paleolithic thru Prehistory (Ancient to Modern)

TOC   Neanderthals
-- Pages 1 thru 4
TOC   Cro-Magnon - our direct ancestors
-- Pages 1 thru 2
TOC   General  Paleolithic  News
-- Pages 1 thru 24
TOC   Paleo  America
-- Pages 1 thru 6
TOC  Ancient News
-- Pages 1 thru 10
-- What is under Stonehenge
Page dedicated to Ítzi
-- Pages 1 thru 1
TOC DNA From All Ages:

I find it difficult to seperate DNA information by era therefore, I am now trying to assemble all DNA that is not directly related to myself or family into a DNA section of its own.  Please bear with me as I work this out.
Neolithic History
-- First page is about Sodom and Gomorrah, the destruction and the correlation to a meteor strike in the alps corresponding to the beginning of the last Maya calendar cycle.

All these are WEB only links

-- - 8/06/14
-- Mexico Timeline by the history Channel - Interesting site

Little Ice Age: Was It Big Enough to be Global?   Describes the period between 1550-1700 when the global average temperature dropped between 1 and 2 degrees Celsius.
For all who believe in the literal reading of the Christian Bible, the passage "one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day" 2 Peter 3:8), is my basis to believe that (even though) God made all living things on earth (In 7 days per the text) there is no fixed human time for 7 of God's days,
since the God Creator is the equivalent of unfathomable wisdom and power throughout eternity, the passage might just as well have read "a million years or even a billion".  A million and numbers greater were not a fathomable concept by our farming and trading ancestors at the time of these teachings, therefore the passage was used to explain the concept of eternity to the listeners.

Therefore, there is reason why both the Bible and the archeologist are correct.  
Yet, even now I am troubled by some Bible passages for instance "let us make man in our image".   Who was "us"?   
Then, according to some concepts, the waters of the red sea parted as long as Moses held up his arms and staff - so how did Moses get across.

As an example, for 400 years (1604-1611) we were taught; in the truest sincerity, the story of Moses parting the "RED SEA" - it turns out that this was translated from the Greek which was translated from Hebrew, but a re-translation of the original Hebrew gives a corrected translation of "REED SEA". The Reed Sea is/was a tidal marsh near the Mouth of the Nile, and when the tide is out it can be walked across.  Pharaoh's forces were probably crossing when the tide came in and Moses no doubt knew this all along, setting a trap for Pharaoh's troops. There is no description of Moses - no one knows his actual likeness.

On the other hand, there is much controversy concerning the translation of Yum Suph (even the word Yum is also spelled Yam). In any case there is no consensus on the translation and there is also much controversy on the location of the nearby cities, so that tracing the exodus route has been and will probably remain an unknown.  It is possible that in the final translation it will be Red Sea. It is the curse of science to render the physical understandable to our inadequate human minds.  Even scientist tend to render themselves inadequate when pride and ego is involved.

Glossary of Epochs

The Lower Paleolithic lasted between 2.5 million-200,000 years ago (or at least according to one permutation), and it was when the Hominid ancestors of human beings, including Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus and Homo ergaster, roamed most of the earth and began making the first stone tools.

The Middle Paleolithic (ca 200,000 to 45,000 years ago) witnessed the evolution of Neanderthals and the first anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens, and some of the first glimmers of modern behaviors: sophisticated stone tools, caring for the elderly, hunting and gathering and some amount of symbolic or ritual behavior. 
Projectile points (used on spears or atlatl darts) are known from earlier prehistory, dating to the Middle Paleolithic.

By the Upper Paleolithic (45,000-10,000 years ago), the Neanderthals were in decline, and by 30,000 BC, they were gone. Modern humans spread all over the planet. The LSA is characterized by fully modern behaviors such as cave art, hunting, and making a wide range of tools in stone, bone, ivory and antler. 
The bow and arrow are known to have been invented by the end of the Upper Paleolithic.

The Mesolithic (or "middle stone") period (12,000-7000 years ago) is traditionally that time period in the Old World between the last glaciation at the end of the Paleolithic and the beginning of the Neolithic, when farming communities began to be established.   During the first three thousand years of what scholars recognize as the Mesolithic, a period of climatic instability made life very interesting in Europe, with gradual warming abruptly switching to 1200 years of very cold dry weather called the Younger Dryas.   By 9000 BC, the climate had stabilized to close to what it is today.

The Neolithic period beginning 10,000 years ago beginning in the Middle East:  Neolithic as a notion is based on an idea of an Old Stone Age (Paleolithic) and New Stone Age (Neolithic).   The definition of Neolithic is now seen as a "package" of characteristics such as groundstone tools, rectangular buildings, pottery, people living in settled villages and, most importantly, the production of food by developing a working relationship with animals and plants called domestication.

Quaternary Period, The
Covers the span of time from over one and a half million years ago to the present day.

The Pleistocene: 1.8 Million to 11,000 Years Ago

But, we still need a way to discuss humans and their ancestors as a separate group, so researchers have proposed a further breakdown of the Homininae subfamily, to include Hominini (humans and their ancestors), Panini (chimps), and Gorillini (gorillas).

So, roughly speaking, a Hominin is what we used to call a Hominid; a creature that paleoanthropologists have agreed is human or a human ancestor. These include all of the Homo species (Homo sapiens, H. ergaster, H. rudolfensis), all of the Australopithecines (Australopithecus africanus, A. boisei, etc.) and other ancient forms like Paranthropus and Ardipithecus.

kiloannum:  A word being used in a few scientific papers these days "kiloannum abbreviated (ka)" means 1000 years and is written as c. 55 Ka. 

BP is another "new" code and stands for Before Present.  The Present means a base date of 1950.   Current consensus is to use BP only when a date is derived using radiation dating procedures.  That is because since the development of the Atomic bomb and it's atmospheric testing, available atmospheric radiation has affected the radiation levels in certain material which requires special test procedures that take that into account.  Otherwise dating not related to radiation, such as before Christ (BC) and Before Common Era (BCE) are synonymous and still used the same as previous.

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